Choosing the appropriate material to work with is critical in producing a product you can be proud of throughout the metalworking process. However, the sheer breadth of available options may make this a time-consuming and challenging task, with numerous alloys and grades of metal vying for your attention. However, by being acquainted with a few essential steel materials often used in metalworking, you may significantly limit your options and simplify the choosing process.
This article examines the most common kinds of steel used by blacksmiths for forging with the anvil.
Carbon steel is the most prevalent kind of steel by far. Carbon steels have a maximum alloying content of 2%. Carbon steel, more precisely, has a maximum of 0.60 percent copper, 1.65 percent manganese, and 0.60 percent silicon. The carbon steel features a different grade ranging from the low to the high grade due to the amount of carbon content.
- Low carbon steel: Carbon dioxide emissions are very low to moderate, with 0.30 percent carbon is included in steel.
- Medium carbon steel: Between 0.31 to 0.60 percent of carbon is included in medium carbon steels.
- High carbon steel: Carbon content in high carbon steels exceeds 0.61 percent.
What is the temperature at Which Carbon Steel is forged?
Carbon steel deforms at a temperature depending on its carbon content. Steel takes on a different hue when heated to a specific temperature. For hand forging, these steels need a temperature of between 2200° F and 2300° F, although it should be noted that the maximum working temperature usually declines with increasing carbon content.
As a blacksmith, you can often determine this temperature by watching the color change of steel as it is heated in a shadowed environment. While this technique is not 100% accurate, it may give information on the material's formability. While carbon steel may be formed by hot forging, it often does not need heat treatment.
While steel is an alloyed metal by definition, alloy steel is an exceptionally specialized kind of steel. Alloy steel includes components that have been explicitly added to alter the characteristics of steel, such as hardenability, ductility, formability, and resistivity. Chromium, manganese, nickel, tungsten, and vanadium are a few alloying components used to produce alloy steel.
Composition of alloy steel
Steel is classified as a high alloy or low alloy. High alloy steel refers to steel containing more than 10% alloying components other than carbon or iron. Low alloy steels typically have less than 0.2 percent carbon percentages and alloying element content of less than 10%. Alloy steels are simple to process, economical to manufacture, and efficiently heat- and mechanical-treated. And to improve the characteristics of the majority of alloy steels, heat treatment is required.
Because alloy steel is usually more robust, harder, ductile, and more corrosion-resistant than ordinary carbon steel, its applications are frequently more demanding. Among these applications are aerospace and electricity, which often demand materials of superior quality and durability.
Although carbon steel is a rigid metal, it is very corrosive. Stainless steel is a kind of steel that is impervious to corrosion. Stainless steel is a high alloy steel that contains at least 10% chromium. It was found in the early twentieth century.
Chemical composition of Stainless Steel
Stainless steels are classified into four groups: ferritic, austenitic, martensitic, and duplex steels. Within these categories, stainless steel is categorized by grade.
- Ferritic stainless steels are magnetic and contain an extremely high amount of chromium, up to 27% by weight.
- Apart from their high chromium concentration, austenitic stainless steels include 8% nickel.
- Also, magnetic, martensitic stainless steels contain up to 1% molybdenum.
- Duplex stainless steels are a combination of ferritic and austenitic steels.
Stainless Steels' Forging Temperature
Due to its compatibility with various chemicals, it is a particularly desirable material for use in high-temperature chemical processes. Stainless steel has a temperature range of 1700oF to 2100oF, depending on the grade. The forging process strengthens and hardens stainless steel, resulting in a more durable material. Generally, stainless steel forgings have a higher strength-to-weight ratio than the original workpiece.
As implied by its name, tool steels are used for cutting. They are primarily used to fabricate cutting and forming tools for other metal goods. Due to the rigors of their uses, tool steels must be strong, resistant to heat, and durable. Carbon and alloy steels are combined in tool steels. They may include alloying metals such as molybdenum, cobalt, tungsten, or vanadium to improve the tool material's durability.
Steel is a very recyclable material. Indeed, it is the substance that gets recycled the most on Earth. Steel recycling is a highly efficient procedure because the physical properties of steel do not degrade throughout the recycling process. Steel recycling emits about 80% less carbon dioxide than steel manufacturing. This feature contributes significantly to the steel industry's sustainability since it enables energy and raw material saving.
Steel must be separated in a recycling facility to be recycled. Scrap metal or steel is carefully segregated and sorted to guarantee the final product contains only high-quality metal. After sorting the metal, it must be compressed to decrease its bulk. At this stage, it is possible to shred the compressed metal due to the ease with which these tiny bits of the metal may be processed. These metal scraps are then melted down to form liquid steel.
A suitable purification technique is subsequently used to refine the liquid steel. After refinement, the material is cooled and solidified in a cooling chamber. Typically, recycled steel is utilized to construct structures. It may be formed into many various shapes and sizes of beams and pipes for different industrial purposes.
All blacksmiths, of course, work with steel. However, have you ever considered the metal with which you are working? The kind of metal you choose may be critical to the success of your final item, depending on what you create. And this is why it is crucial to study the many kinds of steel accessible so that you can decide which sort of steel you are using or want to use for a particular project.